The effects of corrosion can be especially critical and the solution is to protect these laminates by the inclusion of a material in contact with the fluid of greater chemical resistance. This creates a dual composite, formed by a liner in contact with the fluid reinforced by an FRP laminate.
Advantages of using a dual composite on unreinforced thermoplastic material:
The possibility of operating at higher pressures / temperatures
The set is less brittle at low temperatures
The distance between supports is considerably higher (in the case of pipes)
The thermoplastic liner is protected against ambient and U.V.
Advantages of using a dual composite on the FRP material without liner:
The materials used as liner are thermoplastic but depending on the characteristics of the application may be of a different type.